To explore and share information on the methods, models, tools and theory of Knowledge Transfer, Translation, and Utilization.
Latest Activity: Dec 31, 2012
KTM Volume 4, Issue 3: 2013
Knowledge Brokering Bibliography
Bouma, J., McBratney, A.
Framing soils as an actor when dealing with wicked environmental problems
(2013) Geoderma, 200-201, pp. 130-139.
Many studies convincingly document the importance of soils when dealing with the global environmental sustainability issues of today, such as food, water and energy security, climate change, ecosystem service delivery and biodiversity protection. Even though international agencies have supported the claims by the soil science community, recent strategic environmental reports hardly mention soils. Soils need to be "re-framed", realizing that most issues are land-related. This includes introduction of the concept of "Soil Security", including elements of safety, risk and anxiety, and the metaphor of soils as a possible "keystone" connecting the various environmental issues mentioned above. In addition, there is a need for active participation in interdisciplinary research programs, while particular opportunities can be found in transdisciplinary programs actively involving stakeholders and policy makers striving for connected value development. Soil scientists can be effective "knowledge brokers" (Extension 2.0, in which participatory joint learning replaces linear knowledge transfer in traditional extension). Current developments in the policy arena, with more focus on participatory rather than top-down approaches in environmental regulations also offer particular opportunities for soil science. Effective framing does not need more diagnostic studies nor alarming declarations or conceptual action plans, but should focus on the presentation of specific case studies demonstrating the l role of soils when confronting the major environmental issues of today. Benefit/cost analyses are essential to demonstrate that good soil management often represents good business. The "Green Water" study in Kenya is presented as an example of this approach.
Ilic, D., Murphy, K., Green, S.
Perspectives on knowledge, information seeking and decision-making behaviour about prostate cancer among Australian men
(2013) Journal of Men's Health, . Article in Press.
Background: Prostate cancer is a commonly diagnosed cancer in men. Few men understand the complexities involved with prostate screening and treatment issues. The information that men seek and obtain may influence how they make decisions about prostate cancer. The objective of this study was to explore men's knowledge, information seeking and decision-making behaviour in relation to prostate cancer. Methods: A qualitative design with the use of focus groups was adopted for this study. A total of 11 focus groups were conducted with 76 men. Each focus group was specific with regards to cancer diagnosis (with and without) and setting (rural or metropolitan). All focus group discussions were conducted by the same moderator and audio-taped. Transcriptions were analysed according to the grounded theory approach. Results: Participants' knowledge about prostate cancer and relevant treatments was low, despite a large awareness about tests. Patient education resources to facilitate informed decision making were highly valued. The internet was a primary source of information for prostate cancer patients. Patient education materials enabled a proactive approach to medical decision making. Participants demonstrated a preference to discuss treatment options with a health professional, independent of their treating doctor, to assist with decision making. Conclusions: Men adopt a multi-factorial approach to decision making with respect to prostate cancer. The role of a health knowledge broker to independently assist patients may facilitate increased patient knowledge, awareness and decision making regarding prostate cancer treatment.
Theorising the Spaces of Student Migration
(2013) Population, Space and Place, 19 (2), pp. 138-154.
Student migration is a key component of knowledge migration. However, as knowledge becomes a central part of migrant selectivity, labour and family migrants too are involved in knowledge acquisition, both prior to and after migration. At the same time, student migrants are involved in work and family, just like other migrants. What then is distinctive about student migrants? This paper attempts to address this challenge. It begins by reviewing how migration theories have analysed student mobility. It then suggests that migration theorists need to extend existing analyses, which have primarily focused on the spatialities of migration, to take account of the spatialities of knowledge. It is argued that knowledge institutions need to reach out to people in different parts of the world and to produce in prospective students a desire to circulate. This is necessary if the institutions are to obtain a global presence and to maintain their legitimacy as knowledge brokers. An analysis of student migration where the inducements that the Higher Education Institutions offer to prospective students and the subjective responses of such students to these invitations will throw light on how the spatiality of knowledge is achieved and also highlight the distinctiveness of student migration in a knowledgeable migrant world.
Understanding and enhancing climate information use in water management
(2013) Climatic Change, pp. 1-15. Article in Press.
This paper expands our understanding of water manager's climate information (CI) use and of the effectiveness of interactive research efforts in improving use by quantitatively measuring usability both within and outside the interactive research model. Using a mixed method approach (i.e., interviews and surveys), data was collected across five states and hundreds of water managers to understand the production of CI by scientists at two Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments (RISAs) employing an interactive approach and the use of that information by water managers in the corresponding RISA regions. This study finds that RISAs are effective in three important ways: first, in co-producing usable information and achieving a high rate of information use among RISA clients; second, in overcoming barriers to information use arising from negative perceptions about the usability and reliability of CI; and, finally, in fostering innovation. RISA information use is contingent on sustained scientist-client interaction and is enabled by users' willingness and capacity making RISAs most effective in reaching the largest, most capable users. These users and those who use CI from other sources do so as a strategy to manage risk. This research suggests areas for enhancing RISA CI uptake: structuring RISAs as consortia, cultivating relationships with knowledge brokers and capitalizing on existing knowledge networks, and increasing public education and outreach. Beyond the interactive research models, findings suggest CI uptake may be enhanced by building capabilities for long-term water planning at water systems and bolstering public science citizenship and climate literacy..
Principal investigators as knowledge brokers: A multiple case study of the creative actions of PIs in entrepreneurial science
(2013) Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 80 (2), pp. 212-220.
We examine the role of principal investigators on nanotechnology projects as actors in technology transfer. We investigate the actions of four principal investigators on SBIR and university projects that have been successful in funding scientific projects while fostering commercialization. We contribute to the literature by providing a deeper understanding of the nature of the principal investigator's role as knowledge broker and build a case that PIs are moving from investigators that are occasional inventors to being fully engaged innovators. Using case studies, we found that effective principal investigators purposefully engage in acts of brokering that help them achieve their research and commercialization goals. We described these brokering roles (extrapolating, seeking, aligning and anticipating) and discuss the implications for persons interested in facilitating successful technology transfer. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.
Hammami, H., Amara, N., Landry, R.
Organizational climate and its influence on brokers' knowledge transfer activities: A structural equation modeling
(2013) International Journal of Information Management, 33 (1), pp. 105-118.
The purpose of this paper is to gain a better understanding of the processes involved in transferring knowledge into action. Obviously an interesting subject of research, it is worthwhile delving into the role played by knowledge brokers in bridging the gap between research and practice. This paper investigates the relationship between organizational climate and brokers' knowledge transfer activities. The structural equation model was tested, using survey data from 301 respondents who primarily carry out their professional activities in health services, such as knowledge brokers. The results suggest two major findings: first, that the organizational climate as a multidimensional concept has a direct positive impact on the brokers' knowledge transfer activities; secondly, that the organizational climate, characterized by the autonomy granted to brokers and a cooperative climate play an indirect role in affecting the knowledge transfer activities through the mediation of the organizational support provided to brokers. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Maclean, K., Woodward, E.
Photovoice Evaluated: An Appropriate Visual Methodology for Aboriginal Water Resource Research
(2013) Geographical Research, 51 (1), pp. 94-105.
Methodologies in human geography are rapidly evolving to include participatory approaches that incorporate other voices and knowledges. Central to these participatory methodologies is the co-evolution of research objectives, the co-production of knowledge, joint learning, and capacity building of all those involved. Visual methodologies that use the media of photography are gaining recognition as powerful participatory methods. In this paper, we evaluate whether photovoice is a culturally appropriate and engaging visual methodology, and consider how it can be improved to better facilitate research between non-Aboriginal researchers and Aboriginal Australians involved in water resource management. We draw from two photovoice projects conducted in partnership with two separate Aboriginal groups in northern Australia. Photovoice methodology in this context was found to be both culturally appropriate and engaging. It facilitated genuine participatory research, empowered participants, and was easily adapted to the field situation. The methodology proved to be a powerful tool that revealed in-depth information including Aboriginal values, knowledge, concerns, and aspirations for water resource management that may not have been captured through other participatory approaches. Photovoice methodology could be enhanced with a more defined role for the researcher as knowledge broker and as translator and communicator of research outcomes (as deemed appropriate by research participants) to policy makers. © 2012 Institute of Australian Geographers.
Conklin, J., Lusk, E., Harris, M., Stolee, P.
Knowledge brokers in a knowledge network: The case of Seniors Health Research Transfer Network knowledge brokers
(2013) Implementation Science, p. 7. Article in Press.
Background: The purpose of this paper is to describe and reflect on the role of knowledge brokers (KBs) in the Seniors Health Research Transfer Network (SHRTN). The paper reviews the relevant literature on knowledge brokering, and then describes the evolving role of knowledge brokering in this knowledge network. Methods: The description of knowledge brokering provided here is based on a developmental evaluation program and on the experiences of the authors. Data were gathered through qualitative and quantitative methods, analyzed by the evaluators, and interpreted by network members who participated in sensemaking forums. The results were fed back to the network each year in the form of formal written reports that were widely distributed to network members, as well as through presentations to the network's members. Results: The SHRTN evaluation and our experiences as evaluators and KBs suggest that a SHRTN KB facilitates processes of learning whereby people are connected with tacit or explicit knowledge sources that will help them to resolve work-related challenges. To make this happen, KBs engage in a set of relational, technical, and analytical activities that help communities of practice (CoPs) to develop and operate, facilitate exchanges among people with similar concerns and interests, and help groups and individuals to create, explore, and apply knowledge in their practice. We also suggest that the role is difficult to define, emergent, abstract, episodic, and not fully understood. Conclusions: The KB role within this knowledge network has developed and matured over time. The KB adapts to the social and technical affordances of each situation, and fashions a unique and relevant process to create relationships and promote learning and change. The ability to work with teams and to develop relevant models and feasible approaches are critical KB skills. The KB is a leader who wields influence rather than power, and who is prepared to adopt whatever roles and approaches are needed to bring about a valuable result.
Harrow, I., Filsell, W., Woollard, P., Dix, I., Braxenthaler, M., Gedye, R., Hoole, D., Kidd, R., Wilson, J., Rebholz-Schuhmann, D.
Towards Virtual Knowledge Broker services for semantic integration of life science literature and data sources
(2013) Drug Discovery Today, . Article in Press.
Research in the life sciences requires ready access to primary data, derived information and relevant knowledge from a multitude of sources. Integration and interoperability of such resources are crucial for sharing content across research domains relevant to the life sciences. In this article we present a perspective review of data integration with emphasis on a semantics driven approach to data integration that pushes content into a shared infrastructure, reduces data redundancy and clarifies any inconsistencies. This enables much improved access to life science data from numerous primary sources. The Semantic Enrichment of the Scientific Literature (SESL) pilot project demonstrates feasibility for using already available open semantic web standards and technologies to integrate public and proprietary data resources, which span structured and unstructured content. This has been accomplished through a precompetitive consortium, which provides a cost effective approach for numerous stakeholders to work together to solve common problems. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pemsel, S., Wiewiora, A.
Project management office a knowledge broker in project-based organisations
(2013) International Journal of Project Management, 31 (1), pp. 31-42.
Current research into project management offices (PMOs) has stressed the PMOs' potential to act as knowledge brokers between projects, and between project and top management. Nonetheless, the literature does not provide sufficient evidence of the brokering role of PMOs. The research reported here aims to examine PMO's functions from a knowledge sharing perspective and explore whether or not these functions reflect the knowledge sharing needs of project managers (PMs). These issues are investigated through a cross-case analysis of seven organisations. The main contribution is insight into how PMs share knowledge and awareness of the need to structure PMOs to align with PMs' nature, needs and expectations in order to improve knowledge sharing in PBOs. Finally, some practical steps for helping PMOs to better adapt their functions to the needs of PMs and their learning and knowledge sharing style are proposed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Klerkx, L., Proctor, A.
Beyond fragmentation and disconnect: Networks for knowledge exchange in the English land management advisory system
(2013) Land Use Policy, 30 (1), pp. 13-24.
The growing multifunctionality in agriculture, combined with privatisation of previously public agricultural extension services, has resulted in a pluralistic land management advisory system. Despite benefits in terms of increased client orientation and greater advisor diversity, it is argued that these changes have resulted in the fragmentation of the land management advisory system and a reduction of interaction within the advisory system and between the advisory system and science. Hence, concerns have been voiced as regards the capacity of the advisory system to be able to incorporate new knowledge, resulting in a growing interest in how advisors obtain and construct the knowledge necessary for offering adequate advisory services to their clients. In this article we explore how advisors within the English land management advisory system (land agents, applied ecologists and veterinarians) develop and optimise their knowledge by engaging in different kinds of networks (centralised, distributed and decentralised), each of which employs a different type of social capital. Key findings suggest that to obtain the knowledge needed to solve complex queries of clients, advisors use distributed networks and draw upon informal 'communities of practice' within their own advisory profession characterised by bonding social capital, but also draw upon broader 'networks of practice' involving multiple advisors from different advisory professions, which rely on bridging social capital. The employment of decentralised networks which rely on linking social capital, to solve complex queries or develop new services, for example through contacts with scientific institutes, appears to be less developed, despite brokering activities of the professional associations. Whereas fragmentation and disconnect due to competition and epistemological differences do play a role; they do not appear to prevent overall knowledge exchange among advisors within and across different professions. Assumptions of a collapse of interaction within the land management advisory system are not supported by the evidence, as there appears to be much bonding and bridging social capital. However, to optimise interactions between professions, and between advisors and the science system, either informal brokers or formal brokers in the form of professional associations or other organisations could play a bigger role. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Kragt, M.E., Robson, B.J., Macleod, C.J.A.
Modellers' roles in structuring integrative research projects
(2013) Environmental Modelling and Software, 39, pp. 322-330.
Effective management of environmental systems involves assessment of multiple (physical, ecological, and socio-economic) issues, and often requires new research that spans multiple disciplines. Such integrative research across knowledge domains faces numerous theoretical and practical challenges. In this paper, we discuss how environmental modelling can overcome many of these challenges, and how models can provide a framework for successful integrative research. Integrative environmental modellers adopt various roles in integrative projects such as: technical specialist, knowledge broker, and facilitator. A model can act as a shared project goal, while the model development process provides a coordinated framework to integrate multi-disciplinary inputs. Modellers often have a broad generalist understanding of environmental systems. Their overarching perspective means that modellers are well-placed to facilitate integrative research processes. We discuss the challenges of interdisciplinary academic research, and provide a framework through which environmental modellers can play a role in guiding more successful integrative research programmes. A key feature of this approach is that environmental modellers are actively engaged in the research programme from the beginning-modelling is not simply an exercise in drawing together existing disciplinary knowledge, but acts as a guiding structure for new (cross-disciplinary) knowledge creation. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Strengthening the link between traditional and modern practices for improving data quality in health information systems: The case of malawi
(2012) Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, 53 (1), art. no. 2, .
This paper describes an empirical qualitative analysis of how knowledge and data generated through traditional health practices, specifically by traditional birth attendants, with respect to maternal and child health, define and control data quality in health information system. The aim is to gain an understanding of how knowledge and data crosses the boundary between traditional and modern sectors with varying practices, and how the existing mechanisms linking the two sectors can be strengthened. Using an interpretative approach, this research provides the health informatics and information systems community with an understanding of how bridging the divide between scientific and indigenious knowledge can improve data quality in a context where two different sectors exist; each utilising different types of knowledge. Concepts from community of practice theory were employed as the framework for analysis. We recommend that boundary crossing of knowledge and data between the two health sectors must be tailored from histrorical, cultural and modern perspectives, with an emphasis on: i) utilizing the historical-cultural means of capturing data through chiefs and ii) the modern mechanisms of utilising health surveillance assistants as the link.
Children as knowledge brokers of playground games and rhymes in the new media age
(2012) Childhood, 19 (4), pp. 508-522.
This article draws on data from a project on children's playground games and rhymes in the new media age. One objective of the project was to examine the relationship between traditional playground games and children's media cultures. As part of the project, two ethnographic studies of primary playgrounds took place in two schools, one in the north and one in the south of England, over a two-year period. Children in both schools were active participants in the research process. They informed the research design and ongoing data collection through children's panels and children were involved in data collection through the use of video cameras, interviews and diaries. This article reflects on a number of critical issues that are raised when considering the nature of the cultural knowledge constructed by the children as they identify the signifying practices of their play and its relationship with media culture. The concept of knowledge brokering is used as a heuristic device to analyse the nature of children's contribution in participatory research studies. © The Author(s) 2012.
Pardo-del-Val, M., Martínez-Fuentes, C., Roig-Dobón, S.
Participative management and its influence on organizational change
(2012) Management Decision, 50 (10), pp. 1843-1860.
Purpose: This paper aims to deal with the influence of a participatory management style along a change process, specifically in seeking to analyze the effect of participative management style on resistance to change and its effects on change performance. Design/methodology/approach: After a revision of previous literature, an empirical research is presented to test the existence and signs of the relationships between participation and organizational change. To measure the main concepts, the authors have used scales and other measures already published and through a correlation analysis gain some insight into the relationships among variables. Findings: Data suggest that participative management might be giving the members of the organization the necessary tools to question aspects that could endanger changes, thus considering participation as a knowledge broker that sheds light along the change process through the increase of resistance to change sources. Research limitations/implications: The main limitation is the reduced sample, as well as the fact that answers are provided by a single respondent. Practical implications: This research might help practitioners to look at resistance to change from a positive point of view, therefore, participation might be considered a tool to show potential weaknesses and help change agents to improve change outcomes. Originality/value: The paper supports the literature that considers resistance to change positively. Moreover, it provides some hints as to what kind of sources of resistance to change are more important depending on the typology of the change itself. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Naylor, L.A., Coombes, M.A., Venn, O., Roast, S.D., Thompson, R.C.
Facilitating ecological enhancement of coastal infrastructure: The role of policy, people and planning
(2012) Environmental Science and Policy, 22, pp. 36-46.
Urbanisation is recognised as a major pressure on coastal biodiversity. Increasing risks of flooding and erosion associated with future climate change indicate that new hard infrastructure will have to continue to be built - and existing structures upgraded - in areas of high social and economic value. Ecological enhancement involves undertaking management interventions at the design stage to improve the ecological potential of these structures, or to improve the ecological value of existing structures. Whilst scientific research into ecological enhancement methods and designs is growing, there has been limited discussion of the non-science drivers and mechanisms by which ecological enhancements can be successfully implemented in coastal infrastructure projects.We explore the science-policy-practice interfaces of the ecological enhancement of hard coastal structures from three perspectives. First, we outline the growing number of European and UK policies and legislative instruments that are increasing the need to consider ecological enhancement in coastal developments. These serve as a facilitative tool for making enhancement projects happen, constituting a significant 'policy push' for research and application in this area. Second, we examine the role of people in influencing the uptake of ecological enhancements. The critical role of 'knowledge brokers' and the need for effective and sustained collaboration between a range of groups and individuals to get research approved operational trials off the ground is discussed. Third, we examine where in the typical planning, design and build process current enhancement projects have been embedded, serving to illustrate how the science can be used in practice. © 2012.
Currie, G., White, L.
Inter-professional Barriers and Knowledge Brokering in an Organizational Context: The Case of Healthcare
(2012) Organization Studies, 33 (10), pp. 1333-1361.
Our study examines brokering of situated knowledge within an organizational context, characterized by professional hierarchy. We examine how professional affiliation and associated power differentials impact upon knowledge brokering at the individual and group levels within an organization. Our empirical case, which combines social network analysis and qualitative fieldwork, is set in healthcare with a focus upon integration of management, psychosocial and clinical component knowledge domains deemed necessary for treatment of a long-term condition. Our study shows that peer-to-peer knowledge brokering, which is framed by professional hierarchy, remains pervasive with respect to medical knowledge brokering. However, social structures might be mediated through developing architectural knowledge, reflected in both formal and informal organizational routines and schema, which engenders community tendencies that transcend professional hierarchy, so that knowledge brokering is more widely distributed to benefit patients. © The Author(s) 2012.
Bracken, L.J., Oughton, E.A.
Making sense of policy implementation: The construction and uses of expertise and evidence in managing freshwater environments
(2012) Environmental Science and Policy, . Article in Press.
This paper explores how environmental policy is implemented and enacted through the management of technical and institutional knowledge at the local level. We use the conservation of the freshwater pearl mussel in the River Esk, North Yorkshire, UK, as an empirical case study to examine the interaction that takes place between professionals from different institutional and disciplinary backgrounds as they come together to work on a common problem. We focus on two aspects: the way in which an institutional context was created; and the interaction between the professionals involved. Our analysis demonstrates that the strategic intermediary role of professionals is vital to policy implementation. The intermediary uses their strategic vision and undertakes political manoeuvring following the presentation and interaction of different knowledges and evidence to ensure a certain course of action. This is different from a knowledge broker. The role of the professional is to draw on expertise, both formal and tacit, to interpret and judge data in relation to decision making. Those individuals participating in decision making of this nature have multiple histories, roles and motivations which enables innovation in the creation of meaning within environmental management. The quality of the evidence can be assumed adequate once subject to diverse professional scrutiny. These findings are important since innovative behaviour that creates new structures and practices is becoming central to delivering good management of land, water and biodiversity. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kiselica, A.M., Ruscio, J.
Scientific Communication in Clinical Psychology: Examining Patterns of Citations and References
(2012) Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, . Article in Press.
Previous studies of scientific communication used citation mapping, establishing psychology as a 'hub science' from which many other fields draw information. Within psychology, the clinical and counselling discipline is a major 'knowledge broker'. This study analyzed scientific communication among three major subdisciplines of clinical psychology-the cognitive-behavioural, psychodynamic and humanistic schools of thought-by examining patterns of references within and citations to 305 target articles published in leading journals of these subdisciplines. The results suggest that clinical researchers of each theoretical orientation engage in more insular scientific communication than an integrationist would find desirable and that cognitive-behavioural articles are more closely connected to mainstream psychology and related fields. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Zhang, X., Chen, W., Tong, J., Liu, X.
Relational mechanisms, market contracts and cross-enterprise knowledge trading in the supply chain: Empirical research based on Chinese manufacturing enterprises
(2012) Chinese Management Studies, 6 (3), pp. 488-508.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of relational mechanisms and market contracts on cross-enterprise knowledge trading in supply chain and to examine the role of market contracts. Relational mechanism is categorized into indirect and direct relational mechanism in this paper. Cross-enterprise knowledge trading is categorized into explicit and tacit knowledge trading. The indirect relational mechanism is mainly expressed by knowledge brokers, while the direct relational mechanism consists of shared goals and trust. Design/methodology/approach: Multiple regression analysis was performed on questionnaire data from 256 Chinese manufacturing enterprises in supply chain in order to assess the relationships between relational mechanisms, market contracts and cross-enterprise knowledge trading. Findings: The results show that knowledge brokers and market contracts have significant and positive effects on explicit knowledge trading, but the effects on tacit knowledge trading are not significant. Shared goals and trust have significant and positive effects not only on explicit knowledge trading but also on tacit knowledge trading, while trust has a stronger positive effect on tacit knowledge trading than explicit knowledge trading. Finally, the moderating effects of market contracts are proven in the relationships between relational mechanisms and knowledge trading, excluding the relationship between knowledge brokers and tacit knowledge trading. Originality/value: Previous studies about the cross-enterprise knowledge trading in supply chain focused on theoretical research which did not match with reality, especially in China, where the relational mechanism in trading activities is strong. Based on relational exchange theory and transaction cost theory, a conceptual model for the effects of relational mechanisms and market contracts on cross-enterprise knowledge trading in supply chain is proposed in this paper, and then empirically tested using the data collected from 256 Chinese manufacturing enterprises in supply chain with multiple regression models. The findings provide a theoretical basis for knowledge trading participants selecting an appropriate governance mechanism to promote knowledge trading, and these also guide the knowledge trading among members of supply chain in practice. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
David Johnson, J.
The Role of Human Agents in Facilitating Clinical and Translational Science
(2012) Clinical and Translational Science, 5 (4), pp. 356-361.
The fundamental problem confronting policymakers who desire to facilitate the development of clinical and translational science (CTS) comes in bringing people with disparate interests, vocabularies, cultures, goals, and so forth together for a common purpose. A variety of roles have been suggested for individuals who may play key parts in this overall process: opinion leaders, change agents, boundary spanners, structural hole brokers, and, finally, collaborative knowledge brokers. This essay will systematically review these key roles; focusing on the strengths and weaknesses of each to illustrate their part in approaches to solving this problem. The implications of this perspective will be discussed in terms of the role that human agents can play in facilitating CTS. Clin Trans Sci 2012; Volume 5: 356-361 © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Sinfield, P., Donoghue, K., Horobin, A., Anderson, E.S.
Placing interprofessional learning at the heart of improving practice: the activities and achievements of CLAHRC in Leicestershire, Northamptonshire and Rutland
(2012) Quality in Primary Care, 20 (3), pp. 191-198.
Background The National Institute for Health Research initiative 'collaborations for leadership in applied health research and care' (CLAHRC) in Leicestershire Northamptonshire and Rutland (LNR) is a partnership between the University of Leicester and NHS trusts in LNR that aims to reduce the second gap in translation (the long delay between conducting research and it having an impact on clinical practice). Method CLAHRC-LNR appointed specialist staff as boundary spanners and knowledge brokers to improve links between academia and the NHS, and to facilitate a range of activities designed to increase the implementation of research evidence. An interprofessional and interdisciplinary approach is used and incorporates a range of activities including: applied research, service evaluation and pilot projects, education and training events, knowledge dissemination activities and developing networks to increase the use of research in the NHS partners. Results CLAHRC-LNR's close collaboration with partner NHS trusts has aided the development of a programme of applied research that aims to develop interprofessional teamworking to improve healthcare systems and patient outcomes. Co-ordinators (boundary spanners) have been appointed in trusts and have been crucial in facilitating interprofessional working. Activities include a successful programme of training and education courses within the NHS partner trusts using the principles of interprofessional education. CLAHRC-LNR is developing the use of knowledge exchange events and workshops as well as establishing communities of practice to bring together professionals from across LNR NHS trusts and the University of Leicester to share their expertise and build interprofessional relationships. CLAHRC fellows (knowledge brokers) are being appointed to work with co-ordinators to facilitate the use of research evidence in decision making in the trusts and clinical commissioning groups (CCGs). Conclusion Interprofessional working is integral to the approach adopted by CLAHRC-LNR, running through many of its activities, and is proving vital to addressing and helping to close the second gap in translation. © 2012 Raddiffe Publishing.
Mavoa, H., Waqa, G., Moodie, M., Kremer, P., McCabe, M., Snowdon, W., Swinburn, B.
Knowledge exchange in the Pacific: The TROPIC (Translational Research into Obesity Prevention Policies for Communities) project
(2012) BMC Public Health, 12 (1), art. no. 552, .
Background: Policies targeting obesogenic environments and behaviours are critical to counter rising obesity rates and lifestyle-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Policies are likely to be most effective and enduring when they are based on the best available evidence. Evidence-informed policy making is especially challenging in countries with limited resources. The Pacific TROPIC (Translational Research for Obesity Prevention in Communities) project aims to implement and evaluate a tailored knowledge-brokering approach to evidence-informed policy making to address obesity in Fiji, a Pacific nation challenged by increasingly high rates of obesity and concomitant NCDs. Methods: The TROPIC project draws on the concept of 'knowledge exchange' between policy developers (individuals; organisations) and researchers to deliver a knowledge broking programme that maps policy environments, conducts workshops on evidence-informed policy making, supports the development of evidence-informed policy briefs, and embeds evidence-informed policy making into organisational culture. Recruitment of government and nongovernment organisational representatives will be based on potential to: develop policies relevant to obesity, reach broad audiences, and commit to resourcing staff and building a culture that supports evidence-informed policy development. Workshops will increase awareness of both obesity and policy cycles, as well as develop participants' skills in accessing, assessing and applying relevant evidence to policy briefs. The knowledge-broking team will then support participants to: 1) develop evidence-informed policy briefs that are both commensurate with national and organisational plans and also informed by evidence from the Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project and elsewhere; and 2) collaborate with participating organisations to embed evidence-informed policy making structures and processes. This knowledge broking initiative will be evaluated via data from semi-structured interviews, a validated self-assessment tool, process diaries and outputs. Discussion: Public health interventions have rarely targeted evidence-informed policy making structures and processes to reduce obesity and NCDs. This study will empirically advance understanding of knowledge broking processes to extend evidence-informed policy making skills and develop a suite of national obesity-related policies that can potentially improve population health outcomes. © 2012 Mavoa et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Berbegal-Mirabent, J., Sabaté, F., Cañabate, A.
Brokering knowledge from universities to the marketplace: The role of knowledge transfer offices
(2012) Management Decision, 50 (7), pp. 1285-1307.
Purpose: This study aims to conceptualise the role of knowledge transfer offices (KTOs) as knowledge brokers (KBs) and identify which factors are most significantly related with their performance for supporting public-private research organizations (PROs), testing the authors' hypothesis for the Spanish case. Design/methodology/approach: An empirical analysis is conducted based on data from RedOTRI 2008 annual report about 63 Spanish KTOs. A multiple lineal regression model is carried on each of the selected variables representative of KTOs' performance (number of priority patents, revenues from industry collaboration and number of spin-offs) in order to establish possible relationships with some factors related to the knowledge process that characterize KTOs' activity. Findings: A theoretical framework conceptualizing the KTOs' role as knowledge brokers is suggested. Factors positively influencing KTOs' performance are PRO's total annual expenses, the type of PRO, the KTO age, the existence of a science park, the explicit regulation of intellectual property rights, the number of specialized full-time staff of the KTO and the availability of a patent stock. Practical implications: The practical implication is the identification of those critical factors for the day-to-day operation of Spanish KTOs in their different ways of transferring knowledge, drawing managerial and organisational practices that may improve their performance. Originality/value: This paper provides two original contributions for literature on knowledge transfer: a theoretical framework for the conceptualisation of KTOs as KBs, and the categorisation and further analysis of factors closely related to the performance of KTOs. A set of managerial implications for a better improvement of such institutions is presented. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Reznik-Zellen, R., Adamick, J.
Supporting virtual communities through disciplinary repository development
(2012) Library Hi Tech, 30 (2), pp. 275-290.
Purpose: This article aims to discuss the implementation of social networking tools onto existing disciplinary repository platforms - both commercial and open source - with the purpose of building enhanced disciplinary repository-based virtual communities. Design/methodology/approach: This article is a case study. The University of Massachusetts Amherst has served as a test-bed for two disciplinary repository-based virtual communities, InterNano and ESENCe, both of which serve as examples for the development of features that facilitate social connections in emerging multi-disciplinary fields. Two different approaches to the technical implementation of social networking tools onto standard disciplinary repository software platforms are described, as well as the challenges faced by each project. Findings: Although disciplinary repositories are not typically conceived as social spaces, disciplinary repositories can integrate social networking components to act as "knowledge brokers" for emerging disciplines of practice. The challenges of developing disciplinary repositories as virtual communities include software limitations, community integration and trust building, and identification and acquisition of relevant content in emerging and dynamic fields. Originality/value: InterNano and ESENCe represent the growing long-tail of disciplinary repositories, about which little literature exists. This case study demonstrates the activities and challenges of developing small-scale multi-disciplinary disciplinary repositories into active virtual communities. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Yousefi-Nooraie, R., Dobbins, M., Brouwers, M., Wakefield, P.
Information seeking for making evidence-informed decisions: A social network analysis on the staff of a public health department in Canada
(2012) BMC Health Services Research, 12 (1), art. no. 118, .
Background: Social network analysis is an approach to study the interactions and exchange of resources among people. It can help understanding the underlying structural and behavioral complexities that influence the process of capacity building towards evidence-informed decision making. A social network analysis was conducted to understand if and how the staff of a public health department in Ontario turn to peers to get help incorporating research evidence into practice. Methods. The staff were invited to respond to an online questionnaire inquiring about information seeking behavior, identification of colleague expertise, and friendship status. Three networks were developed based on the 170 participants. Overall shape, key indices, the most central people and brokers, and their characteristics were identified. Results: The network analysis showed a low density and localized information-seeking network. Inter-personal connections were mainly clustered by organizational divisions; and people tended to limit information-seeking connections to a handful of peers in their division. However, recognition of expertise and friendship networks showed more cross-divisional connections. Members of the office of the Medical Officer of Health were located at the heart of the department, bridging across divisions. A small group of professional consultants and middle managers were the most-central staff in the network, also connecting their divisions to the center of the information-seeking network. In each division, there were some locally central staff, mainly practitioners, who connected their neighboring peers; but they were not necessarily connected to other experts or managers. Conclusions: The methods of social network analysis were useful in providing a systems approach to understand how knowledge might flow in an organization. The findings of this study can be used to identify early adopters of knowledge translation interventions, forming Communities of Practice, and potential internal knowledge brokers. © 2012 Yousefi-Nooraie et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Getting the message across: Principles for developing brief-Knowledge Transfer (b-KT) communiqués
(2012) Work, 41 (4), pp. 477-481.
Objective: This feature article on knowledge transfer presents principles and strategies to support the development of short communiqués to end-users. Participants: Formal and informal knowledge brokers are the targeted users of the strategies. Methods: Research studies and conceptual literature in knowledge transfer informed the development of brief-Knowledge Transfer (b-KT) principles. Principles are explained and a sample of how they informed the development of KIT-Tip Sheets is offered to promote ways to use principles in knowledge dissemination. Results: b-KT principles can be used as a framework to guide the development of short communiqués by knowledge brokers in work practice but also in the health, social and rehabilitation domains. In addition, these principles promote the participation of end-users in the development of knowledge transfer. Conclusions: Formal evaluation is needed on the use of these principles in achieving the uptake and use of knowledge by end-users. © 2012 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.
'Clean and safe' passage: Business Improvement Districts, urban security modes, and knowledge brokers
(2012) European Urban and Regional Studies, 19 (2), pp. 167-180.
This paper interrogates the complex role of Business Improvement Districts (BIDs) in securing and shaping conduct in public retail and 'entertainment' spaces in Canadian cities. Adopting a Foucault-inspired sociology of governance perspective, this paper uncovers key features of the role of BIDs therein and casts doubt upon assumptions evident in previous research, including in relation to urban neo-liberalism. BIDs seek to exclude obstacles, which include 'panhandlers' and the homeless, from public spaces. Yet, other barriers are placed into relief by a proliferating 'clean and safe' rationality and are deemed to interfere with consumption conduct and pedestrian flow. These include BID members engaged in moralized enterprises. Some BIDs are deploying CCTV surveillance arrangements and interactive 'ambassadors' consistent with 'clean and safe', whereas others avoid these modes and rely upon and lobby for public sources. The role of BID coordinators in brokering specialized knowledge is pivotal in these varied security arrangements. Theoretical implications of this analysis are discussed. © The Author(s) 2012.
Protocol for a qualitative study exploring the roles of 'Diffusion Fellows' in bridging the research to practice gap in the Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire and Lincolnshire Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC-NDL)
(2012) BMJ Open, 2 (1), art. no. 000604, .
Introduction: Evidence produced by researchers is not comprehensibly used in practice. National Institute for Health Research Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care for Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire and Lincolnshire's strategy for closing the research to practice gap relies on the use of 'Diffusion Fellows' (DFs). DFs are seconded from the local healthcare economy to act as champions for change, translating and disseminating knowledge from practice into the research studies and vice versa, taking the knowledge developed by academics back into their own practice environments. This paper outlines the rationale and design of a qualitative evaluation study of the DF role. Methods and analysis: The evaluation responds to the research question: what are the barriers and facilitators to DFs acting as knowledge brokers and boundary spanners? Interviews will be carried out annually with DFs, the research team they work with and their line managers in the employing organisations. Interviews with DFs will be supplemented with a creative mapping component, offering them the opportunity to construct a 3D model to creatively illustrate some of the barriers precluding them from successfully carrying out their role. This method is popular for problem solving and is valuable for both introducing an issue that might be difficult to initially verbalise and to reflect upon experiences. Ethics and dissemination: DFs have an important role within the CLAHRC and are central to our implementation and knowledge mobilisation strategies. It is important to understand as much about their activities as possible in order for the CLAHRC to support the DFs in the most appropriate way. Dissemination will occur through presentations and publications in order that learning from the use of DFs can be shared as widely as possible. The study has received ethical approval from Nottingham 2 Research Ethics Committee and has all appropriate NHS governance clearances.
Ward, V., Smith, S., House, A., Hamer, S.
Exploring knowledge exchange: A useful framework for practice and policy
(2012) Social Science and Medicine, 74 (3), pp. 297-304.
Knowledge translation is underpinned by a dynamic and social knowledge exchange process but there are few descriptions of how this unfolds in practice settings. This has hampered attempts to produce realistic and useful models to help policymakers and researchers understand how knowledge exchange works. This paper reports the results of research which investigated the nature of knowledge exchange. We aimed to understand whether dynamic and fluid definitions of knowledge exchange are valid and to produce a realistic, descriptive framework of knowledge exchange.Our research was informed by a realist approach. We embedded a knowledge broker within three service delivery teams across a mental health organisation in the UK, each of whom was grappling with specific challenges. The knowledge broker participated in the team's problem-solving process and collected observational fieldnotes. We also interviewed the team members. Observational and interview data were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively in order to determine and describe the nature of the knowledge exchange process in more detail. This enabled us to refine our conceptual framework of knowledge exchange.We found that knowledge exchange can be understood as a dynamic and fluid process which incorporates distinct forms of knowledge from multiple sources. Quantitative analysis illustrated that five broadly-defined components of knowledge exchange (problem, context, knowledge, activities, use) can all be in play at any one time and do not occur in a set order. Qualitative analysis revealed a number of distinct themes which better described the nature of knowledge exchange.By shedding light on the nature of knowledge exchange, our findings problematise some of the linear, technicist approaches to knowledge translation. The revised model of knowledge exchange which we propose here could therefore help to reorient thinking about knowledge exchange and act as a starting point for further exploration and evaluation of the knowledge exchange process
Started by Paul J Graham Oct 5, 2012.
Started by Paul J Graham. Last reply by Neli Maria Mengalli Feb 7, 2010.
Started by Lyndal Thompson. Last reply by Paul J Graham Nov 28, 2009.
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