Reporting multi data collection method in qualitative research

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    Dear friends,

       I have a question about how to report different data collection method. for example if researcher used the interview (as main data collection) and focus group (for supporting the interview data), how should report it in thesis, it should be merged or separately reported? Please inform me if you know any sources which explain about it.


    David Morgan

         The most common model would be to include both of these at the same location within the Methods section. The typical format is to present your main method first and to give more detail there. Then use one or two paragraphs to describe your supplementary method, including information about how you combined it with your main method.

         For good examples, I like to recommend the journal “Qualitative Health Research.” Even if you are not in a health-related field, it has lots of papers that mostly follow a relatively standard format.

    Hope that helps,



    Dear David,

       Thanks for your comment! Actually as you mentioned, I have done such a thing in my Chapter 3 (Methodology) but the main problem is how to report my finding in Chapter 4? I get confused that how should I report the findings of interview and focus group when both supported each other!

       Indeed, I had a discussion with one of Associated professor in My University, she believes even if the findings of interview and focus group support each other, I have to report them in Chap 4 separately!! But I am not agree with her! So,  I am looking for sources to help me how to report my data in chapter 4.

    I am looking forward your answer,



    well well, this is an interesting issue which needs the experts in data collection when using such tools possibly will be in position to let us all  learn about the best way.

    Thank you for raising this question?



    Hi Nahid,

               Yes, you do need to discuss the responses under each sub-heading.I will look for references for you.



    Hi Yasmin,

       Thanks a lot! I am looking to hear from you.



    Dear Nahid,

    Coincidentally, two of my students are dealing with this right now. In one case the student used coding procedures based on steps of grounded theory plus visual analysis of instagram pictures. 

    In their chapter 4 Analysis and discussion they did a nice introduction that explains how to read the ideograph that followed. They presented the coding map (based on three levels of coding) of the interview data that is then joined in the middle by the themes (overlapping and additional) from the visual analysis. This is a pretty nice overview. 

    The themes are then discussed based on the analysis one by one in view of their research question. 

    I find this presentation quite straightforward and very comprehensible and comprehensive. 

    However, remember Nahid that you need a “to the point” introduction section to that ideograph. 

    Take care 

    From still cold Stockholm

    Patrick L’Espoir Decosta


    Dear Patrick,

       Thanks for time you spend to answer my question! I think the procedure for reporting two different type of data collection such as interview and visual data should be like the one you explained. But for reporting focus group and interview, I am not sure! 

        Honestly, the procedure your students applied in their work is very interesting for me! I hope to enjoy your knowledge in methodology more 🙂

       Just want to request you if you found any sources or references which I could cited in my work, just please share with me! 

     Have a very nice day,

     From Tropical Region,



    Dear Nahid, 

    Oops, seems I did not read your request properly. Sorry about that. 

    My question would be what type of analysis are you going to do? I had some students who used a Foucauldian discourse approach to the analysis of the data from the focus groups and qualitative coding analysis (for themes) of the interviews. See Parker (2004) in  Flick, Kardoff and Steinke (Eds) A companion to Qualitative Research (308-312).

    They used a code mapping (three levels of coding) towards themes that were then superimposed on the different discourses the analysis of the focus groups revealed.

    All of this was presented through a discussion of each of the themes and discourses in the Chapter 4 Analysis and Discussion 

    Hope this help. 



    I found the following reference that you might find useful

    Analyzing and Reporting Focus Group Results by Richard A. Krueger (1997) 


    Dear Yasmin,

       Thanks for your support! I think it is a good book! I searched in Google but couldn’t find the soft copy, so should check it in UM library! Hope to find it soon!

    Thanks a gain,


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