• According to Burrowes (1996), in two recent approaches to the study of culture, in the 1980-1990s, the “cultural studies” and “cultural indicators” approaches, investigators explored the traditionally functionalist concern of “cultural systems integration.” These two approaches could be synthesized in the investigating cultural systems. Burrowes (1996) writes, “If functionalism offers to this cross-fertilization a focus on the normative orders of society, the cultural indicators approach provides a rigorous methodology and cultural studies cautions a greater sensitivity to social hierarchies.”